Monday, 21 July 2014

Chemicals and Compounds of the Fly Agaric

The different chemicals and compounds found within the fly agaric mushroom. The quantities of these can vary wildly from mushroom to mushroom, and even within one mushroom. Some of the chemicals can cancel each other out (for example atropine and muscarine), but with slightly differing amounts, there can be very different effects.

Muscimol

Muscimol stimulates GABA receptors. GABA is found throughout the plant and animal kingdom, and may represent a ubiquitous biological signalling molecule between animals, bacteria, fungi and plants (http://sydney.edu.au/medicine/pharmacology/adrien-albert/images/pdfs/RefsPDFs/390.pdf).

Muscimol is a crystalline solid that melts at 175C. It has neurologic activity and is a potent depressant of the central nervous system. The adverse effects of ingestion include sleep, hallucination, distorted perceptions and vomiting. (A Comprehensive Guide to the Hazardous Properties of Chemical Substances By Pradyot Patnaik 2007)

Ibotenic Acid

Ibotenic acid can be used in a similar way to monosodium glutamate, to improve the flavour of foods.
Tricholomic acid and ibotenic acid can prevent deterioration of food and separation of Water therefrom, and keep the freshness and vivid appearance thereof; for example, when either of them is added to food paste, it improves color and increases viscosity and elasticity; when added to sake (rice wine), it prevents deterioration, when added to miso (bean paste) or soy sauce, it increases stability; and when added to milk or its processed matter, it lowers curd tension and promotes digestion.

The insecticidal properties of fly agaric are a result of ibotenic acid (Takemoto et al, 1964). Experiments have shown that the insecticidal activity of tricholomic acid is superior to that of ibotenic acid.

Muscazone

Muscazone is a crystalline solid amino acid that decomposes above 190C. It's sparingly soluble in water. The toxic symptoms from high doses are similar to those from ibotenic acid. (A Comprehensive Guide to the Hazardous Properties of Chemical Substances By Pradyot Patnaik 2007)

R-4-hydroxy-pyrrolidone

Tricholomic Acid

Tricholomic acid can be used in a similar way to monosodium glutamate, to improve the flavour of foods.
tricholomic acid and ibotenic acid can prevent deterioration of food and separation of Water therefrom, and keep the freshness and vivid appearance thereof; for example, when either of them is added to food paste, it improves color and increases viscosity and elasticity; when added to sake (rice wine), it prevents deterioration, when added to miso (bean paste) or soy sauce, it increases stability; and when added to milk or its processed matter, it lowers curd tension and promotes digestion.

Muscarine

Muscarine is a non-selective agonist of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. It crosses the Blood Brain Barrier. Muscarine mimics the function of the natural neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the muscarinic part of the cholinergic nervous system. Muscarine is not metabolised by acetylcholinesterase.

Bufotenin

(5-HO-DMT, N,N-dimethylserotonin), is a tryptamine related to the neurotransmitter serotonin. It is an alkaloid found in the skin of some species of toads; in mushrooms, higher plants, and mammals.[1] The name bufotenin originates from the Bufo genus of toads, which includes several species of psychoactive toads, most notably Incilius alvarius, that secrete bufotoxins from their parotoid glands.[2] Bufotenin is similar in chemical structure to the psychedelics psilocin (4-HO-DMT), 5-MeO-DMT, and DMT, chemicals which also occur in some of the same fungus, plant, and animal species as bufotenin. The psychoactivity of bufotenin has been disputed, though recent studies suggest it is similar in nature to 5-MeO-DMT. (from Wikipedia)

Choline

Choline is the precursor molecule for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

Acetylcholine

Acetylcholine is an organic molecule that acts as a neurotransmitter in many organisms, including humans.

Betaine

A betaine is a neutral chemical compound with a positively charged cationic functional group. It is also a methyl donor of increasingly recognised significance in biology.

Atropene

Is an antidote to muscarine.

Muscaridin

Hercynin

May act as a precursor of trimethylamine (Nielsen, J. trimethylaminonium compound in Tilletia spp., Canadian, J. Bot, LXU fase. 3, p. 335-339, 1963. ). Trimethylamine is used in the synthesis of choline, itself a precursor of acetylcholine.

Uracil

One of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA. In DNA, uracil is methylated and becomes thymine.

Xanthine

A mild stimulant and broncho-dilator. Increases alertness in the central nervous system. Stimulates the respiratory centre and is used in the treatment of asthma and infantile apnoea.

Hypoxanthine

The Pheretima aspergillum worm, used in Chinese medicine preparations, contains hypoxanthine. (The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs, Second Edition By Kee C. Huang)

Adenosine

Very important in human energetic processes, as ADP, ATP and cAMP. It is also an important neurotransmitter in falling asleep. Adenosine receptors are key to opening the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB). Adenosine is also believed to have anti-inflammatory properties.

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